LogoFort Folly Nation Logo
1763 to 1815
  • 1763-1765
  • At Portland Point at the mouth of the Saint John River the business firm of Simonds, White and Hazen, former New England military officers, established a settlement and a trading post to trade with the settlers and Maliseet who lived along the river.
  • 1765
  • Before 1765, there was almost no settlement in the Miramichi region, a major Mi'gmaq territory.  Hunting and fishing areas remained open and the Mi'gmaq were able to continue their traditional way of life.  However, Halifax authorities in 1765, approved a 100,000-acre land grant on the Miramichi to William Davidson and John Cort, two enterprising young Scotsmen who wished to establish a commercial fishery on the river.  In the years after 1765, settlers started netting fish in the Miramichi River.  Davidson and Cort agreed to settle this vast wilderness tract with one Protestant person for every 200 acres.  No regard was given to the fact that a commercial fishery would interfere with one of the Mi'gmaq's principal means of livelihood, or that the grant actually embraced Mi'gmaq campsites along the North West and Little South West branches of the Miramichi River.  Davidson and Cort brought in a small number of settlers from Scotland and New England, set up a small community at the mouth of the river, opened a store and conducted trade with the Mi'gmaq along the Miramichi River.  They developed a salmon fishery, built vessels and shipped timber, furs and fish to the Mediterranean and to the West Indies.  In the years after 1765 settlers' netted fish in the Miramichi River, however, these settlers were few in number and relations between them and the Mi'gmaq were peaceful.  However, as time passed, Mi'gmaq protests about the fishing and lumbering activities of settlers increased and so did the tension between the two groups.

    The First Nation people had become dependent upon European goods through their long association with the French and they became frustrated in dealing with New Englanders and depending upon them for supplies.  In 1765, a number of First Nation people raided and looted the company of the White and Hazen store at Portland Point killing Richard Simonds, younger brother of the owner of the store.

    The Nova Scotia government reserved 500 acres at Aucpac (Aukpaque) for First Nation occupation (Ganong Origins of Settlements in New Brunswick IN Royal Society of Canada). 

    On the south side of the Saint John River at Fredericton, there is an ancient burial ground near where the lieutenant governor's residence now stands.  In 1765, the Nova Scotia government granted four acres of land to the local Maliseet near the present location of Government House.

  • 1768
  • The First Nation people in the region that later became New Brunswick lived at a great distance from Halifax and were little affected by British rule.  In 1768, Maliseet representatives from the River Saint John went to Halifax for a conference and requested a Catholic clergyman to reside with them and for lands at Aukpaque and St. Anne's for cultivation along with agricultural tools.  They complained that the Acadians on the River Saint John were hunting on their grounds and asked that the British authorities remove them.  They also complained that alcohol was too common and requested that an effort be made by British authorities to control this trade.
  • 1772
  • About eighty families from Yorkshire, England immigrate to settle in New Brunswick.
  • 1775
  • With the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, British colonial officials sought to pacify the First Nations and remove them as a military threat.  France, siding with the United States against England, hoped that French Acadians and the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet would rise up and fight against the English.  In New Brunswick, a small number of discontented First Nation people, Acadians and New Englanders did take up arms against the British.  The First Nation people had every reason to be unhappy with British officials at Halifax who had not granted them land, had not stopped white settlers from trespassing on land they claimed as their own, and had not provided them with the services of a Catholic priest as requested.  The opening shot of the Revolutionary War was fired at Lexington, Massachusetts in April 1775.

    In August, Fort Frederick at Portland Point, located at the mouth of the Saint John River, was attacked and burned by American privateers.  The privateers continued up the Saint John River forcing the settlers to sign a declaration of allegiance to the American congress.  Settlers and merchants, Simonds, White and Hazen refused to pledge allegiance to the rebels and were under constant threat of attacks by the Americans and their First Nation allies.

    Along the Miramichi River, the situation between the Mi'gmaq and settlers had been deteriorating since 1765 when Scottish merchants had obtained a grant of a large tract of land and had netted salmon in the river.  Mi'gmaq protests against the fishing and lumbering activities sent to Halifax went unheeded.  In 1775, a number of angry Mi'gmaq supporting the Americans burned down buildings, stole cattle, and plundered John Cort's storehouse. 

  • 1776
  • Jonathan Eddy, a New England settler from Westmorland County, raised a small army of Americans, Acadians and First Nation people and marched on Fort Cumberland, formerly Fort Beauséjour.  The fort, commanded by Colonel Joseph Goreham, had a garrison of provincial troops.  Eddy's forces put the fort under siege for about a month before British forces, assisted by loyal Yorkshire and New England settlers relieved the fort and then defeated Eddy's forces at Camphill.  Eddy and his army retreated to the Saint John River and from there to Maine looting and burning homes of loyal settlers along the way. 
  • 1777
  • In July, there was a second attack along the Saint John River Valley and at Portland Point by the Americans rebel forces and their First Nation allies.  Again, there was looting and burning and loyal settlers were forced to flee their homes.  Later in 1777, British and loyal colonial forces counter-attacked and defeated the rebel forces.  The British then established a garrison at Saint John and constructed Fort Howe. 

    Raids by American privateers and French and First Nation allies resulted in the looting and burning of William Davidson's operations on the Miramichi River and he was forced to abandon the area and flee to the safety of the settlement at Maugerville on the Saint John River.

  • 1778
  • In July the Maliseet declare war on the English at Fort Howe claiming that the Saint John River valley was their territory and that the English had no right to be there. The British officials sought to pacify the First Nation people and, in September 1778, they set up a conference with the Maliseet and Mi'gmaq and spent a large sum of money entertaining the chiefs and providing them with various presents.  A peace treaty (non-alliance with Americans) and terms were arranged and oaths of allegiance to the British Crown obtained from First Nation leaders.  The British appeased the Maliseet by bringing in a French priest from Quebec as they had promised many years earlier and by again offering to issue land grants. 
  • 1779
  • At Aukpaque, the Maliseet received a grant of 704 acres including Indian Island, and at St. Anne's, they received four acres.

    First Nation leaders claim that British lumbermen, cutting masts for the British Navy on the upper Saint John River, were trespassing on their territory.  The "Indian Agent" wrote to the head chief of the Maliseet living on the Saint John River and sent him presents of blankets, clothing, powder, shot, rings and ribbons and promised to protect the interests of the First Nation people in exchange for their acceptance of the woodsmen. These acts apparently satisfied the Maliseet and there was no further difficulty for a number of years.

    To defend against future American attacks and to assure peace among the First Nations and New Englanders, British officials strengthened their military position by stationing a garrison at the mouth of the Oromocto River.  The Maliseet who had joined in attacking the settlers were either pacified or forced to flee to Maine with their rebel allies.  The presence of a British military and naval force in the area restored stability and peace. 

    British colonial officials made a few land grants to the First Nation people.  At Aukpaque, Maliseet's received a land grant of 704 acres including Indian Island, and 4 acres at St. Anne.  At Indiantown, a trading house was built to facilitate the exchange of furs for European goods.  This was an ancient First Nation site and the start of the portage around the Reversing Falls. 

    British authorities sent a warship to the Miramichi River in 1779.  They captured a number of Mi'gmaq warriors and forced the chief to flee.  Peace was forcefully restored.  The English naval officer sent to quell the disturbance appointed John Julian as chief of the Mi'gmaq on the Miramichi.  Halifax officials forced the Mi'gmaq to sign an agreement promising to stop attacking settlers and destroying their property, and to have nothing to do with the Americans.  In exchange, the Mi'gmaq were promised grants of land and in 1783 the Halifax government gave them a licence to occupy a large tract of 20,000 acres.  After the restoration of peace, William Davidson returned to the Miramichi River and re-established his farming, fishing, lumbering and trading operations.

  • 1780
  • In June 1780, a conference was held on the Saint John River with First Nations attending from what later became Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec.  All agreed to support the English against the Americans.
  • 1783
  • Just before the Loyalist arrival, the Nova Scotia government granted a licence of occupation to John Julian and his 'tribe' for a designated land parcel of 20,000-acres along both sides of the North West Miramichi River.  In the years after 1783, the most valuable parts of the land parcel were conveyed to Loyalist settlers.  Encroachments and disputes followed and resulted in a new licence of occupation issued in 1789 by government to John Julian and his 'tribe' on the North West Miramichi (Eel Ground) for 3,033 acres.  See 1789 and 1804.

    Big Hole Tract and the south half of the Renous established.

    A licence of First Nation occupation was issued on August 13 for a designated land parcel at Red Bank at the mouth of the Little South West Miramichi.  This land parcel, containing 1`0,000 acres, was located on both sides of the Little South West Miramichi at its confluence with the North West Miramichi.  A large portion of the land was located to the southward and a smaller portion to the northward.  A road divided the southern part and created farms with fronts on the road and the river. 

    As the American Revolutionary War concluded and it became obvious that the Americans would be victorious, the problem of what to do with the thousands of Loyalists who had fought for the British cause came to the fore.  In the spring and fall of 1783, even before the official signing of the peace treaty, ships carrying some 14,000 Loyalist military and civilian refugees mostly from New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Pennsylvania sailed north from New York ports and arrived at what became Saint John.  The influx of thousands of Loyalists completely submerged New Englanders, Acadians as well as the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet and transformed the political, economic and social life of the region.

    The arrival in 1783 of some 14,000 Loyalists proved disastrous to the First Nation people.  The Loyalists were attracted to the traditional places that the First Nations had inhabited for centuries and were able to obtain possession of many of these sites.  The conquering of the area by the English meant that all lands belonged to the British Crown and settlers who wanted land on which to farm, build a house, cut timber, or erect a grist or sawmill merely had to submit a petition for a land grant to the lieutenant governor in Fredericton.  Between 1783 and 1790 over 1,000,000 acres of land in New Brunswick was granted to the Loyalist newcomers.

  • 1784  to 1815:
  • First Nations in New Brunswick
  • 1784
  • It proved impossible for officials at distant Halifax to administer to so many newcomers entering through the Saint John port so the older colony of Nova Scotia was partitioned and the colony of New Brunswick was set up in 1784.  First Nations disliked and mistrusted the Loyalists.  A number of Mi'gmaq and Maliseet had sided with the Americans during the Revolutionary War and had attacked, looted and destroyed the homes and businesses of non-First Nation inhabitants.  First Nation people blamed the English for the loss of hunting territories and fishing locations that provided their principal means of support.  During the Revolutionary War, British officials arranged treaties of peace and friendship in an attempt to foster better relations.  British officials believed that the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet population was few in number compared to the more numerous English population, and, being scattered all over the province with many living in small family groups, did not pose a serious military threat.  To be on the safe side, the capital of the new colony was located at Fredericton and Loyalist military regiments settled in units along the Saint John River valley with officers and men living in close proximity.  In this way, the militia had the ability to assemble quickly to deal with any First Nation uprising or attacks by the Americans to the south.

    Prior to 1784, Mi'gmaq and Maliseet leaders attempted to obtain land grants from the Nova Scotia government with some success.  First Nation leaders continued this practice after the creation of New Brunswick in 1784 realizing that if they were to preserve any of their former territory for hunting and fishing they would have to obtain land grants from the Loyalist colonial government at Fredericton.  First Nation leaders sought to acquire title to large tracts of land to leave unsettled and uncultivated so that their people would have sufficient land in which to hunt game and catch fish.  After the creation of New Brunswick in 1784, colonial officials at Fredericton opposed this plan and refused to cooperate.  The British Loyalist officials at Fredericton wanted all New Brunswick settled and as much land as possible cultivated.  Loyalist administrators preferred to issue licences of occupation not land grants to the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet, which gave them permission to occupy and use the land at government's pleasure.  This meant that this 'reserved' land remained Crown land and the government at any time could revoke these licences of occupation.  In this way, First Nations were not treated as full citizens, but viewed as wards of the Crown.  In issuing these licences of occupation to land-parcels, the government at Fredericton always dealt with individual chiefs or small, local groups. When government officials received petitions, they responded directly to the petitioners.  No grants or licences were ever issued to the Mi'gmaq or Maliseet as a nation.

    The responsibility for dealing with First Nation matters in New Brunswick rested with the Lieutenant Governor, Executive Council, Provincial Secretary and the House of Assembly.  Monies to assist First Nation people sometimes came directly from England, as in the case of funds for education, but usually the provincial House of Assembly voted monies. 

    The British officials at Fredericton bypassed First Nation elders who were the traditional leaders of the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet and disregarded the process of consensus normally employed to make decisions affecting the whole community.  Instead, the British officials treated branches or 'tribes' of Mi'gmaq and Maliseet people as separate, politically independent groups.  Each 'tribe' in New Brunswick possessed a local government based on hereditary chieftaincy.  The word "tribe" is of European origin employed by the British officials before 1867 to apply to any group of First Nation people coming under a local or regional First Nation government.  A chief was chosen at a council or conference usually arranged each year by the Catholic missionaries on St. Anne's Day (July 26).  At this council, band members expressed their views on who should become chief.  These chiefs, sometimes referred to as "kings", often held their positions for one year at a time but could be re-elected to office for any number of years until they died, retired or were removed from office.  A chief could be removed from office for misconduct such as drunkenness or incompetence.  In those places where there was more than one 'tribe', for instance on the Miramichi River, there was an appointed head chief who had authority over the lands of all the 'tribes' and who was also chief of his own particular 'tribe'.  The other 'tribes' on the river had their own local chief, who had authority and autonomy only in their own 'tribe'.  The colonial government in Fredericton officially recognized the head chief who always obtained a formal appointment or commission by the Lieutenant Governor of the day. 

    The Maliseet and Mi'gmaq had to deal with the spread of Loyalist settlements along the shores of Passamaquoddy Bay, up the Saint John River, around the Bay of Fundy, up the Petitcodiac, Shepody and Memramcook Rivers, around the Chignecto Basin, at Baie Verte, along the Northumberland Strait and along the north shore.  Because there were no roads constructed in the new colony, waterways remained the principle means of travel and communication for First Nation people and non- First Nation people alike. 

  • After 1784
  • After 1784, nearly every major navigable river and stream in New Brunswick received Loyalist settlers.  They settled on prime land that had been the traditional territories and residences of the First Nations people.  The settlers drove the First Nation people from place to place, as ancient sacred sites, desecrated, were ploughed over.

    Many First Nation people tried to continue to wander, hunt and fish for part of the year but as settlement became more extensive, fish and game populations declined, trapping for furs and subsistence hunting became more difficult.  Some First Nation people settled for part of the year near communities where they would find a market for their butter and wash tubs, buckets and churns, axe and pick handles, peaveys, barrels and casks, mast hoops, shingles, canoes, paddles and oars, snowshoes, hockey sticks and farm supplies.  They also made and sold, decorative baskets and moccasins and beautiful quillwork but settlers who came to New Brunswick had very little money to spend on such items. 

    First Nation people were often able to find various types of work in communities, although they made some money, this source of revenue was uncertain and insufficient, and survival was difficult.

    Gradually, land parcels were designated to provide permanent homes for First Nation people; however, these lad parcels were insignificant compared to the original Mi'gmaq and Maliseet territories and were not located on the best sites because these had already been granted to Loyalist settlers.  Colonial officials wanted First Nation peopleto settle down and take up farming for which the government was willing to supply farm equipment and training.  Unfortunately, designated land-parcels did not contain much land suitable for farming.  Settlers trespassed on the more suitable designated land parcels.  They violated First Nation peoplfishing rights, cut hay or timber, raised crops, erected homes and barns and pastured livestock on designated First Nation land parcels without grant or licence.  Government officials at Fredericton tolerated these encroachments because they lacked the money to prosecute trespassers and the sympathy of local and provincial officials usually lay with the squatters.  Complaints to Fredericton were frequent but affected little change.

    Established Maliseet communities were located at various points along the Saint John River.  Starting in the northwest, there was an First Nation community at the mouth of the Madawaska River in what later became Madawaska County.  A considerable number of Acadians had moved into this region and taken up lands among the First Nation people.  Soon French settlers and fur traders from Quebec joined them.  There was a Maliseet community just above Middle Southampton on the east bank of the Saint John River in York Countyand at the mouth of the Tobique River in what became Victoria County.  There was a site at St. Mary's across the river from Fredericton.  Smaller First Nation communal sites were at Grand Falls, Nictau and Nictau Lake.  There was the ancient Maliseet community at Meductic on the River Saint John four miles above the mouth of Eel River in what later became Carleton County and seasonal sites on the Becaguimec and Meduxnekeag Rivers.  Also at Fredericton, on the south side of the river, there was an ancient burial ground near where the lieutenant governor's residence now stands.  In 1765, the Maliseet were given a grant of 4 acres.  For a time, the First Nation peoplecontinued to live along the Shogomoc Stream in Canterbury Parish, and near Currie Mountain in Douglas Parish.  In Sunbury County, there was an First Nation settlement at the mouth of the Oromocto River later to become a designated land parcel licensed for First Nation occupation.  In Queens County, there was a First Nation settlement on the Salmon River, two miles below the Gaspéreau.  There were numerous First Nation communal sites around Grand Lake, at Indian Point between Grand Lake and Maquapit Lake, and on the Canaan River about 5 miles above North Forks.  There were First Nation communal sites back of Maugerville in Sunbury County and above Gagetown, Queens County.  In Kings County, Maliseet resided in the Sussex area but departed when settlers intruded on their hunting and gathering grounds.  There were seasonal sites near Apohaqui, on the Kennebecasis and Nerepis Rivers, and on the Millstream.  There were 3 small islands known as "The Brothers" in the Kennebecasis off Milledgeville that later became an First Nation designated land parcel licensed for First Nation occupation.  There were also seasonal sites at Mahogany and Navy Islands for harvesting clams.  West of Point Lepreau there was a site occupied before 1784 and additional sites along the shores of Musquash Harbour and the Musquash River.  There were a considerable number of Maliseet in Charlotte County before the arrival of the Loyalists. St. Andrews was established in 1783 on the site of what had previously been the principal First Nation community in the Passamaquoddy region.  After 1784, First Nation families for a time, continued to live on Indian Island, Ministers Island, Campobello and Grand Manan Islands, at St. Croix, Salmon Falls and along the Magaguadavic, Digdequash, Letang and Bocabec Rivers. 

    Mi'gmaq resided at various points along the Northumberland Strait.  In Albert County, there were sites on the Petitcodiac River.  At Fort Folly, an ancient communal site became a designated land parcel licensed for First Nation occupation in 1840.  Along the Shepody River, there were seasonal sites and in Westmorland County, there were small Mi'gmaq settlements near Dorchester.  There were communal sites along the Memramcook River, at Westcock Brook and at Palmer Brook, at Midgic and Cape Tormentine.  At Indian Mountain, about 8 miles northwest of Moncton, there was a hunting centre disrupted by the arrival of Loyalists and, at Moncton, a communal site at Hall's Creek.  In Kent County, there were First Nation communities along the Molus River, on Indian Island and at Big Cove on the Richibucto River 12 miles west of the community of Richibucto.  Later, the community at Big Cove was licensed for First Nation occupation.  Smaller communal sites were located near Bouctouche, Richibucto, and below Rexton on the south side of the river.  In Saint John County, a small number of First Nation people resided in the early 1760's after the arrival of the New Englanders and the Loyalists in 1783.  In Northumberland County, there were many First Nation communal sites on the Miramichi River.  Its branches, such as the Cains, Taxis, Renous, Batholomews, Barnaby and Bartibog, were named after First Nation people who had once lived there.  Communal sites were located along the shores of Miramichi Bay, a few miles above Derby Junction, above Douglastown, and a few miles above Strawberry Point in Newcastle Parish.  Large First Nation communities were located at Red Bank and Eel Ground, and smaller communities at Indiantown and at the mouth of the Renous River.  At Burnt Church was one of the most ancient and important Mi'gmaq settlements in the district.  Later, this became a designated land parcel licensed for First Nation occupation.  In Northumberland County, there were communal sites at the mouth of the Bay du Vin River, at Hardwicke, on the Tabusintac River and at the mouth of the Clearwater Stream in Northesk Parish.  In Gloucester Countythere were many sites along the Bay of Chaleur, along Bathurst Harbour, Miscou Harbour, at Caraquet, on the Pokemouche River, at Shippagan, at Rough Waters, Indian Falls and elsewhere.  Further north in Restigouche County there were communal sites at the mouths of the principal branches of the Restigouche River and at the mouths of all the rivers along the coast from Eel River to Nepisiguit River.  Later, Eel River became a designated land parcel licensed for First Nation occupation.  On Heron Island, the Mi'gmaq had a communal site and cemetery.  There was a large First Nation community at Old Mission Point in Quebec opposite Campbellton.  The modern day Town of Dalhousie is built on an ancient First Nation communal site.

  • 1786
  • Colonel Isaac Allen bought a part of the First Nation lands at Aukpaque.  Some Maliseet objected to the land sale feeling that they were not treated fairly. 

    The murder of a Maliseet man by two Loyalists caused considerable excitement and it was feared that the Maliseet would take revenge.  The Maliseet camped about Colonel Allen's house demanding justice and making Allen and his family uncomfortable.  The two Loyalists were arrested, taken to Fredericton, tried and found guilty.  One man was pardoned and the other executed.  The Maliseet were appeased.

  • 1787
  • Fredericton officials were instructed by their superiors to treat New Brunswick First Nation people with civility and kindness.  First Nation leaders were to be given presents since it was cheaper to secure their friendship, than repel hostilities.  The British home government felt that common justice required some attention and compensation to the First Nation peoples since the Loyalists were occupying their lands.  Local officials were instructed to be generous in giving presents before asking the First Nation people to make more land concessions.

    When their bands felt they were ill treated, chiefs were encouraged to come to Fredericton and present their complaints before the local government.  Since the main complaint was the loss of lands, the Fredericton officials were instructed to issue land grants to them as soon as possible.  The main goal of the colonial administration at Fredericton was to appease the First Nation people and do so at the least public expense, but this policy did nothing to improve the situation in which First Nation people found themselves because of the loss of their hunting and fishing territory.

    Government officials in Fredericton were aware that the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet were having great difficulty in supporting themselves by hunting and fishing because lands were being granted to settlers who killed off the game upon which the they depended on for their survival.  In emergencies, government would supply First Nation people with food but it was believed that it would be better if they would learn to farm, grow their own food and be assimilated into general society as quickly as possible.  Officials hoped that they would not need to live on designated land parcels, or be dependent upon government for support.  They wanted the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet to assume their 'rightful' place as 'productive' citizens.

  • 1789
  • A group of Mi'gmaq at Bouctouche petitioned government for a large tract of land that they wanted to be left undeveloped.  The government officials at Fredericton wrote to the representative for the Mi'gmaq and told him that they were willing to issue a licence of occupation to the bands and survey the land for them to establish villages if they were willing to settle down and learn to farm.  However, the government would not accept any requests to have large tracts left unsettled and uncultivated.  The Mi'gmaq were instructed that in case of any injury by either the English or the French, they were to make complaint to the magistrates of the county who would redress the wrongs done to them.

    The Eel Ground community on the North West Miramichi was designated as an First Nation land parcel and issued a license for First Nation occupation for 3,033 acres by the government to John Julian and his 'tribe' on January 10.  See 1783 and 1804. 

  • After 1789
  • Loyalist administrators and Anglican clergy created First Nation schools at Meductic, Fredericton and Sussex.  Schools at Meductic and Fredericton soon closed.  Previously, some First Nation children had been taught to read and to write by elders in their tribe who used religious books written in Mi'gmaq hieroglyphics by Catholic missionaries.  This practice was not widespread and by the 1780,'s the majority of First Nation people could neither read nor write.
  • 1790
  • Frederick Dibblee, an Anglican clergyman, reported that he had set up a school at Meductic in York County and had 22 First Nation students: 5 married, 2 widows, 10 boys and 5 girls.  The students were members of 8 families who had placed their wigwams on the school lot.  He noted that the Maliseet were continual in their attendance at school and that they were quick to receive instruction in spelling, writing and in religious training. 

    At the First Nation school in Sussex, there was an apprenticeship programme with the boys taught to farm and the girls taught to do domestic work.  The First Nation school at Sussex survived for only a few years until it too was abandoned when it failed to change the migratory lifestyle of First Nation pupils, convert them to Protestantism, or assimilate them into Loyalist society.  Alienation from their culture and exposure to abuse, resulted in the majority of students from this school entering into the Roman Catholic Church.

  • 1792
  • A European traveller on the Saint John River met about 60 canoes loaded with First Nation peopletaking their children to the school at Meductic. 
  • 1793
  • Great Britain and France were again at war.  Colonial officials at Fredericton were very concerned about the close ties within the Abenaki Confederacy fearing that the Americans would attempt to stir up the First Nation people and encourage them to attack Loyalist settlements. 
  • 1794
  • Fredericton officials in an attempt to pacify the First Nations and to attach them firmly to the British side, paid for the services of a French priest to come from Quebec to work among the First Nation people.

    The Maliseet sold Aukpaque to the Loyalists.  Most of the community members moved to Kingsclear and St. Mary's.

  • 1798
  • One source of conflict between the British and the Americans was the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick that had not been defined in 1784.  The Americans claimed that the Magaguadavic River was the boundary and the British claimed the St. Croix River was the correct boundary.  Using the close ties between the Maliseet living in Maine and New Brunswick the Americans persuaded them to testify that Champlain had settled on the Magaguadavic River.  The commissioner for New Brunswick was able to produce copies of writings and maps compiled by Champlain (1604) and these resulted in excavations on Dochet's Island that led to the St. Croix chosen as the boundary line.  However, it would take another forty years of confusion and conflict to agree on a northerly boundary.

    The northern boundary between New Brunswick and Quebec was also in dispute.  In the 1790's Acadians had established themselves at the mouth of the Madawaska River among the Maliseet.  They had been joined by French Canadians escaping Quebec's seigniorial system.  Quebec claimed this territory because the population was French-speaking, but Fredericton officials said the settlements were tied to New Brunswick by the Saint John River and thus belonged to them.  Both the Acadians and the Québécois were involved in trading furs with the Maliseet in the region.  In the autumn, the Acadians would advance the Maliseet supplies for the upcoming winter and expected to receive furs the following spring.  However, in spring, Quebec fur traders would arrive and by the use of intoxicating liquors take the furs away from them.  To deal with problems, the Fredericton government appointed John Costin, the only English speaking, Protestant inhabitant of the area who could read and write, as justice of the peace.  A militia unit was also established to maintain law and order among Acadians, Québécois and Maliseet.  The boundary problem between New Brunswick and Quebec would not be resolved for another fifty years!

  • 1790
  • British authorities in London instructed officials in New Brunswick to stop issuing land grants until the whole province could be surveyed.  Unfortunately, war in France broke out and the London officials ignored New Brunswick until 1807 when the restrictions were removed and land granting was resumed.  In the ensuing years, settlers took up land with licences of occupation, or more commonly, merely squatted on land, clearing it in the hopes that a grant would follow.  During this period, non-First Nation squatters occupied a considerable amount of First Nation land.
  • 1801
  • The ancient Maliseet community at the mouth of the Tobique River (consisting of 16,000 acres on the east side of the Saint John River from the Tobique rocks to opposite the mouth of the Aroostook River, embracing both sides of the Tobique for a distance of about 3 miles) was issued a license of First Nation occupation by the government on September 4th.  Tobique was the name of a Maliseet Chief who had formerly lived here.
  • 1802
  • The ancient Tabusintac community, consisting of ~9,035 acres on the Tabusintac River (February 2), 10 acres at Wishart's Point near the mouth of the river and 25 acres at Ferry Point was issued a license of First Nation occupation by the government on February 18.

    The Mi'gmaq in Westmorland, Kent, Northumberland and Restigouche counties found themselves involved in a claim by the Halifax government for that part of New Brunswick.  Before and after 1784, strong economic ties between Halifax and the Miramichi had existed, and using the argument of convenience of communication and trade, Nova Scotia claimed that this part of New Brunswick be returned to them.  This application failed and the Mi'gmaq in this area remained under the control of the Fredericton officials.

  • 1804
  • A survey was made of the Miramichi River that tried to fix the boundaries of the Little South West designated land parcel (offered in 1789 to John Julian and his 'tribe') and reconcile it with the 1783 licence for First Nation occupation.  As a result, a new tract of land was laid out that consisted of 10,000 acres.  This survey also set aside 750 acres at Indian Point and another 8,700 acres at the Big Hole tract, for a total of nearly 20,000 acres.  Although this designated land parcel almost equalled the original designation in size, there was far less riverfront land than the 1783 license had provided.  See 1805.

    The ancient Pokemouche community, on the south side of the Pokemouche River 7 miles inland and consisting of 2,600 acres, was issued a license of First Nation occupation by the government in May.

  • 1805
  • The Julian 'tribe' was issued a license of First Nation occupation by the government for ~8,700 acres on the northeast side of the North West Miramichi, opposite the Sevogle Stream.  Unfortunately, the Miramichi Fire of 1825 destroyed the valuable timber on this land and damaged the soil making the land suitable only for growing blueberries.

    March 5, 750 acres on the north side of the North West Miramichi, opposite the Little South West Miramichi, was licensed by government for occupation by First Nations and called Indian Point or Indiantown (also known as Sunny Corner). 

    September 9, government issued a license for First Nation occupation for a 4,600-acre land parcel along the north of the Richibucto River and extending up to Bass River.  This licence for First Nation occupation was modified on February 25, 1824. 

  • 1805
  • The license for First Nation occupation was issued on September 9 and modified on February 25, 1824 for the designated land parcel from Big Cove to the Molus River along the north side of the Richibucto River extending up to Bass River, Kent County.
  • 1807
  • The Britain removed restrictions and land granting was resumed.

    The license for First Nation occupation was issued on February 28 for the designated land parcel3.2 km south of Dalhousie at the mouth of the Eel River.

  • 1808-1815
  • The years from 1808 to 1815 brought to New Brunswick a considerable prosperity.  Trade, fishing, lumbering and shipbuilding increased steadily.  War between Great Britain and the United States from 1812 and 1814 had a positive and profitable affect upon New Brunswick trade.  The British Navy controlled the seas and no American attack upon New Brunswick was possible.  For some First Nation people who lived near the ports of Passamaquoddy Bay, the Saint John harbour and elsewhere, the increase in wages and the demand for workers meant they were able to find employment.  High wartime food prices also brought prosperity to the agriculture industry.  A general increase in the amount of money available in the colony helped the local population afford First Nation-made products.
  • 1808
  • The military administrator of New Brunswick, Major-General Martin Hunter, noted that the Maliseet and Mi'gmaq had not been treated fairly in the past and had many reasons for complaint.  He observed that although land allotments had been made to First Nation people in various parts of the colony, they continued to wander about the province in an attempt to support themselves by hunting.  Unfortunately, the availability of wild animals was rapidly declining and the First Nation people felt their way of life was being threatened.  He noted that should war with the United States break out the First Nation people could be a threat to the exposed settlements in the colony.  He requested funds to provide relief for them.
  • 1809
  • The first attempt to register a land parcel on the Pabineau River when Andrew Julian and 9 petitioners wrote to Fredericton.  In 1819, Francis Julian received permission to clear an area for growing hay and to practice lumbering in support of First Nation families residing there.  The license for First Nation occupation was granted in April 1841.
  • 1810
  • November 1, government licensed a designated 3,500-acre land parcel for First Nation occupation along the north side of the Bouctouche River, Kent County above Mill Creek.
  • 1812
  • When war broke out in 1812 serious attempts were made by the British military officials to make sure that the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet in New Brunswick were pacified and removed as a potential military threat.  Conferences were held and treaties of peace and friendship were made.  Proclamations and other formal documents were signed to guarantee the neutrality of the First Nation people.  When a group of Maliseet requested financial aid to purchase lands on the Saint John River, the house of assembly agreed, but when the war ended the funds were withdrawn. 

    Repeatedly, First Nation people were ignored except in time of war.  Members of the house of assembly were reluctant to assist them because monies were used by the house to secure the election of members and since First Nation people could not vote, expending money on them was not considered worthwhile.  The lieutenant governor may have wished to assist First Nations, but he was denied funds by the house of assembly.  The colonists refused to accept the First Nation people as equals and viewed them as people to be exploited.

  • 1814 to 1818
  • During these uncommonly cold years agriculture in New Brunswick as a whole declined, and food and aid had to supplied to the Mi'gmaq and Maliseet to keep them from starving.