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Glossary
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Glossary of Terms: all

abeyance
the condition of an estate which has been claimed but not taken possession of.
abode
a place of habitual dwelling or residence ie, a home.
Aboriginal
The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people- First Nation, Métis and Inuit as separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.
Aboriginal communities
Aboriginal Communities are located in urban, rural and remote locations across Canada. They include: First Nations or Indian Bands, generally located on lands called reserves; Inuit communities located in Nunavut, NWT, Northern Quebec (Nunavik) and Labrador; Métis communities; and communities of Aboriginal people (including Métis, Non-Status Indians, Inuit and First Nation individuals) in cities or towns which are not part of reserves or traditional territories (for example, the Aboriginal community in Winnipeg).
aboriginal rights
rights of Native peoples arising from their aboriginal use and occupation of territory.
Aboriginal self-government
Governments designed, established and administered by Aboriginal peoples under the Canadian Constitution through a process of negotiation with Canada and, where applicable, the provincial government.
Aboriginal title
A legal term that recognizes an Aboriginal interest in the land. It is based on the long-standing use and occupancy of the land by today's Aboriginal peoples as the descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada.
abstract
a summary of the essential facts in a document.
abstract book
a land record book listing land purchases.
abstract of title
shortened versions of the documents affecting the title of land.
abut
to adjoin or border such as land, estates, or farms.
Acadian
an inhabitant of Acadia (present day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island); a descendant of French settlers (see Centre d'Études acadiennes Anselme-Chiasson).
achievement
a heraldic insignia including a shield or coat of arms, helmet, mantling, wreath, crest and motto.
action
a lawsuit.
action in personam
a court proceeding commenced against a person rather than against property.
action in rem
a lawsuit the purpose of which is to determine the legal status of property.
addition
a title or name added to a man's Christian or surname to show rank, occupation or residence.
administration , letters of
a document issued by the court authorizing the administration of the estate of a dead person in instances when an executor is not nominated in a will; or, if named in the will, the executor or executrix fails, refuses, is deceased, or is unable to act or perform the duties of an executor. An administrator will be appointed by the court if there is no will or if the will is defective. Probate records are located at the Provincial Archives of New Brunswick in Fredericton.
administration bond
an amount of money, usually twice the estimated value of an estate, posted by the person chosen by the court to act as administrator of an estate which insures that the administrator will fulfill his or her obligations satisfactorily according to law.
administration of estates
the court supervised management, settlement and distribution of an estate by an executor or administrator whose duties involve the collection and payment of debts and the distribution of the remainder of the estate.
Administrator
(male), administratrix (female) usually a close relative of the deceased appointed to administer an estate.
administrator cum testamento annexo
an administrator with the will annexed appointed by the probate court in instances where there is a defective will, an executor is not nominated in a will, or if the person named as executor in a will refuses or is unable to act.
administrator de bonis non
an administrator appointed by the court to distribute property discovered after the probate of an estate has been completed.
adverse possession
living on someone else's land without being challenged by the owner where the owner may or may not have knowledge of the occupation of his land. Under some situations, in accordance with the law, adverse possession can lead to outright ownership.
affiant
a person who signs an affidavit.
affidavit
a written document created while under oath before an authorized officer such as a notary public, solicitor, court officer, etc.
affinity
one's relationship to a spouse's relatives.
age of consent
age at which persons can marry without parental consent.
aggregate census
an enumeration in which no names are recorded, only the number of individuals in age groups.
ague
the shivering stage of an acute fever.
alien
a person born in a foreign country who has legal rights only in his country of origin.
alienate
in land transactions, the transfer of property which has unrestricted ownership.
almshouse
a workhouse for the care of the poor.
Ambrotypes
In 1851, Frederick S. Archer introduced a process by which a weak negative photographic image was placed on a glass plate. In most ambrotypes the image is hand tinted, covered with another piece of glass for protection and inserted in a small leather and metal case with black paper or paint used behind the image to make it appear positive. You notice no mirror-like effect if the ambrotype is rotated or tipped back and forth. Ambrotypes replaced the more expensive daguerreotypes and were very popular from 1852 to about 1870.
ancillary
in probate proceedings, if the decedent owned property in more than one province ancillary proceedings would be commenced for probate in the other province.
annulment
in church records, a termination of a marriage; in law, an annulment establishes that a marital status never existed.
anthropology
the study of human society, culture and behaviour, and also of the origins of human beings and their physical characteristics.
apothecary
one who prepared and sold drugs.
apprentice
one learning a trade or profession, bound by contract to work for a specified length of time under the direction of a master workman.
appurtenant
an "accessory" incidental to land in which a person owns an estate. Such as an easement or right of way across the land of another.
archaeology
the recovery and detailed study of material evidence remaining from human life and culture in the past.
armiger
one entitled to bear arms, such as a knight.
arms
the hereditary armorial bearings of a family with its marks of distinction or coats of arms.
arraignment
the action of formally bringing charges against someone.
assignment
a document transferring land ownership to another.
assumpsit
an agreement to perform an obligation, which if not performed may result in a lawsuit known as an 'Action is assumpsit'.
asylum
a place for the confinement of the insane.
attachment
a seizure or taking into custody of persons or property, by legal process, to satisfy a court judgment.
attestation
a certification by oath or signature in the presence of witnesses.
attornment
the act of accepting or recognizing a new landlord.
band
the basic unit of Indian government recognized by the government of Canada.
banns
the publication of the notice of an intended marriage for three consecutive Sundays prior to the event.
baron et feme
husband and wife.
barque
a sailing ship that has two or more masts square rigged except the mizzen or aft mast.
bequest
a gift by will of personal property, a legacy.
Bill C-31
The pre-legislation name of the 1985 Act to Amend the Indian Act. This act eliminated certain discriminatory provisions, including the section that resulted in First Nation women losing status when they married non-status men.
bill of sale
a document the purpose of which is to transfer title to personal property.
birth certificate
document recording somebody's birth: an official document that states when and where somebody was born and the parents' names
blood quantum
a measure used in determining tribal membership by setting the minimum quantity of "Indian blood" a person must have in order to qualify. A person's quantum is determined by tracing ancestry back to a "full-blooded" Indian.
bona fide
in good faith.
bounds
natural or man-made physical features that define the boundaries of a parcel of land.
brigantine
a two masted sailing ship with a square rigged foremast and a fore and aft rigged mainmast.
broadcloth
plain-woven, double-width black cloth used mostly for men's clothing.
cabriolet
a two wheeled chaise pulled by a horse, having a top of wood or leather and a large apron.
canine madness
hydrophobia or rabies.
caption
the title, first lines or "heading" of a document, including court records.
cause of action
the basis or reason for commencing a lawsuit.
caveat
a warning, a precautionary notice.
caveat emptor
a Latin legal term meaning let the buyer beware.
Centre d'études acadiennes Anselme-Chiasson
Université de Moncton Library, Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9 (506) 858-4085 http://www0.umoncton.ca/etudeacadiennes/centre/CEA.html As its name implies, the Centre d'études acadiennes Anselme-Chiasson has as its mandate the study of all things Acadian. In collecting material of Acadian interest, however, much has been acquired that relates to other peoples, including the First Nations.
cession
surrender of territory - the act of ceding territory.
cestui que vie
a life estate transferred to a person.
chain
in land records a lineal measure of land 66 feet, 100 links of a chain, or four poles in length.
change of venue
transfer of a court proceeding to a different court.
chattels
personal property.
Church Parish
A community served by a Church or Churches.
civil law
concerns itself with disputes between private individuals that are heard and determined in the courts.
civil parish
A division of land within a County for the purpose of providing the area with municipal and provincial government services.
codicil
a supplement or addition to a will.
cognates
words in different languages that come from the same original root and have the same meaning. For example, French vue and English view.
collateral relationship
a brother or a sister to one's parents ie, an uncle or an aunt. In genealogy, a collateral ancestor line is sideways, not vertical as in a lineal ancestor line.
collateral relative(s)
Brothers and sisters of an ancestor, your grandaunts and granduncles and their descendants.
common law
unwritten law based on custom, usage and precedent which originated in England as distinguished from the Civil Law of Rome.
commotion
a condition of turmoil, civil unrest or, an insurrection.
communication
letter, e-mail, telephone call or interview
communications Log
a summary of questions asked and the data received in each communicationwhich allows tracking of interviews, telephone calls and letters/e-mails and serves as a reminder when a follow-up is required.
comprehensive land claims
Land claims based on the assessment that there may be continuing Aboriginal rights to lands and natural resources. These claims come up in those parts of Canada where Aboriginal title has not previously been dealt with by treaty and other legal means, such as in New Brunswick. The term"comprehensive" is an indication of their wide scope including such things as land title, fishing and trapping rights and financial compensation.
Concordat
a type of treaty which regulates church affairs, signed between the Pope and a government.
conjugal
a state of marriage ie, married persons
consanguinity
the relationship or connection of persons descended from a common ancestor; blood relationship.
conservator
a guardian or protector of a person and who is appointed by a Court to manage the person's estate.
consort
a companion, wife or husband, or mate.
constructive notice
the opposite to actual notice. It is notice with which a person is charged because of documents filed in the public or official records.
consumption
pulmonary tuberculosis.
contested will
a will which one of the heirs finds reason to believe is not correct and challenges it in court.
contingent
rights dependent to accrue on the happening of a future event.
convey
the transfer of title of property to another, usually by deed.
conveyance
the legal document by which the title of property or land is transferred.
cordwainer
a shoemaker.
corporeal hereitaments
right to inheritance of tangible property, e.g., an estate of land.
corporeal rights
tangible rights in property, such as an estate in land, and opposed to "incorporeal rights".
correspondence
letter, e-mail, interview or any other form of communication to gather or support genealogy facts.
correspondence log
Record the date, a list of each family mentioned, and a summary of each genealogy correspondence and the address where it was sent. This enables you to track correspondence and serves as a reminder when a follow-up is required. A filing system that allows the quick location of data found in correspondences will be of great assistance and will save a lot of time.
county
a territory with boundaries to facilitate local government for residents of communities within those boundaries.
Court of Appeal
The highest court in this province; hears appeals in criminal and civil matters. It hears appeals from the Court of Queen's Bench, Probate Court, Provincial Court (indictable offences) and various administrative tribunals, for example, the appeals tribunal under the Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission Act. The court sits in Fredericton, although it may sit elsewhere if the Chief Justice of New Brunswick so directs.
Court of Queen's Bench
Hears all matters within the domain of family law. The Court of Queen's Bench also has original jurisdiction in major civil and criminal cases. In addition, it has appellate jurisdiction over summary conviction offences from the Provincial Court. The Court of Queen's Bench is divided into two divisions:
- Family Division
- Trial Divison
craft
the skilful making of items by hand. Usually refers to items intended for everyday use and wear which are made with special attention to form and design.
cramp colic
appendicitis.
crest
a heraldic bearing or device.
criminal law
deals with those who commit anti-social acts and are prosecuted by government.
Crown
the government that represents the monarch. In Canada, this can be the federal or a provincial government.
Crown lands
public lands which are legally the property of the Crown.
curtesy
in common law, a widower's right to his wife's land if he sired issue by her.
custom
a tax levied by the government on items brought into or carried out of the country.
Daguerreotype
The photographic process used can date early photographs, at least approximately. In 1838, L.J.M. Daguerre introduced a procedure for fixing images by which a silvered copper plate was placed in iodine fumes, then exposed in a camera, developed in mercury vapours, fixed with sodium hyposulphite, then washed and dried. Daguerreotypes were a tremendous success and the technique spread throughout Europe and North America in the years from 1840 to about 1860. Daguerreotypes usually took the form of portraits in small leather and metal cases with the faces often being hand tinted. If the daguerreotype is rotated or tipped the back and forth in normal lighting, a mirror-like effect will be noticed. Never take apart an old daguerreotype or touch its unprotected surfaces because the chemicals are still active and the surface can easily be marred or smudged.
deed
a document in writing if signed and acknowledged by which an estate or interest in land is transferred from a grantor to a grantee; donor to donee - if a gift.
deed poll
a deed executed or signed by one person only, even though other grantors were involved, and in some instances the names of the grantees were added later.
demise
a lease, transferring from a lessor to a lessee a leasehold estate for a term of years, for life, or "at the will" of the landlord.
demurrer
a delay or stay.
deponent
a person who testifies before an officer at a deposition hearing. Depositions are often confused with affidavits.
devise
pertains to gifts of an interest in real property by means of a will.
dialect
a variety of a language used in a certain region or among an identifiable group of people. A dialect differs from other varieties of the same language in respect to pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar.
direct relative(s)
a person who is descended from a common or blood ancestor.
dispensation
a special release from obligation.
disposition
a deed of conveyance of property.
disseisin
the ouster or removal of a person from possession of real property.
divorce
(a) mensa et thoro (from bed and board) a type of legal separation; (b) divorce a vinculo absolute divorce.
Documentary sources
see Primary sources and Secondary sources
dower
the one-third interest of a widow in the freehold lands of her deceased husband.
dragoon
a heavily armed mounted infantryman.
easement , right of way
an interest in lands of another person - a right of use but not the right of possession.
Easter
refers to the spring term in court records.
emptor
a buyer.
entail
to put a restriction on how land could be passed on to descendants.
entirety , tenancy by
joint tenancy whereby two persons both own an interest in the same land.
equitable title
one who acquires legal title to land by paying the mortgage.
escheat
the reversion of property to the crown under some circumstances, e.g., non-payment of fees.
escrow
a payment held by a third party.
estate
the interest which a person possesses or owns in lands or any other type of property, e.g., freehold estates, fee simple absolute estates, fee tail estates, life estates, estate for years, periodic tenancy, tenancy at will.
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. One is unable to understand anothers' beliefs or customs because one interprets them only from one's own point of view.
ethnographer
one who describes a people's culture, society, economy, etc.
executor
an individual appointed by one making out a will to distribute the property mentioned in the will.
extant
in existence or not destroyed.
extended family
an immediate family (father, mother, children) and their relatives, including grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins on both sides.
feature
a smaller area within a site that was used for a particular purpose - such as a fireplace, a tool-making area, or a house-floor.
fee simple absolute
an estate or interest in lands which the owner holds without any restrictions or limitations.
feme covert
a woman who is married.
feme sole
a woman who is unmarried.
First Nation
A term that came into common usage in the 1970's to replace the word "Indian," which some people found offensive. Although the term First Nation is widely used, no legal definition of it exists. The term "First Nations people" refers to the aboriginal peoples in Canada. Some First Nation communities have adopted the term "First Nation" to replace the word "band" in the name of their community.
folklore
traditional customs, tales, stories, etc handed down to descendants by ancestors. Folklore events are often not supported by verifiable records.
footnote
Shows exactly from where a genealogical fact came from. Number each fact in parenthesis and at the foot or back of the same page carefully describe or cite the source of the numbered fact.
freehold
an estate or interest in land which may be transferred to heirs or others. A fee simple estate.
furlong
a distance equal to 1/8 of a mile, 40 rods, 220 yards, 660 ft.
glebe
land belonging to a church.
goods and chattels
personal property and livestock.
grant
a transfer of Crown land to a private owner.
grantee
one obtaining land from another.
grantor
one conveying land to another.
half pay pension
half the usual wages given to a retiring officer. Many Loyalist officers received half pay.
hallucination
delirium.
heraldry
the art, practice, or science of recording genealogies and blazoning arms or ensigns armorial.
Hilary
refers to the winter term in court records.
holographic will
a will written completely in the handwriting of the person making the will, signed and dated.
impressed seamen
seamen forced into service on ships.
in propria persona
an individual acting for himself without an attorney.
in terrorem clause
a provision in a will to warn legatees to do or not do a certain act, such as marrying or be subject to the punishment of disinheritance. Such clauses are usually disregarded by the courts.
indenture
a document, such as a deed, by which two or more persons are involved, e.g., a seller and a buyer.
indentured servant
a servant who sold himself to a master for a period of time, usually 4 to 7 years, in order to pay for ship passage.
Indian
Historically referred to as a native, today First Nations people or aboriginals, one of three groups of people recognized as Aboriginal in the Constitution Act, 1982. It specifies that Aboriginal people in Canada consist of First Nations, Inuit and Métis.
Indian Act
Amended several times over the years, the federal government first passed the Indian Act in 1876. It contained most of the federal law concerning aboriginals and incorporated many of the older colonial and local statutes as well. It sets out certain federal government obligations and regulates the management of First Nation designated land parcels, moneys and other resources. This legislation also set up the Department of Indian Affairs.
Indian status
An individual's legal status as an Indian, as defined by the Indian Act.
indictment
a document based on a decision by a jury that sufficient evidence exists to bring a person to trial.
indigenous
originating in a place; not introduced from outside. The Indians and Inuits of North America are indigenous peoples.
indigent
a pauper.
inherent right
a right which exists permanently for the people who have it and which cannot be taken away.
injunction
power by a court to prohibit or require a person to do or not do or perform a specific act.
Innu
Naskapi and Montagnais First Nation communities in Northern Quebec and Labrador.
inquisition
an inquest or investigation.
insolvent estate
an estate that is unable to pay creditors.
instant
the same as is given, e.g. in extracts from newspapers it means the same month.
intestate
a person who died without making a will.
Inuit
A First Nation who live in Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. The word means"people" in the Inuit language, Inuktitut. The singular of Inuit is Inuk.
Inuvialuit
Inuit who live in the Western Arctic.
issue
A legal matter in a dispute between two parties.
jail fever
typhus.
joiner
a carpenter.
jurat
a certificate of a notary public or other authorized officer.
ketch
a vessel with two masts, a main and a mizzen mast, usually from 100 to 250 tons.
kinap or ginap
a person who has extraordinary strength or skill.
king's evil
the former belief that it could be healed by a king's touch.
Kodak
In 1888, George Eastman began selling flexible celluloid film together with a light portable hand camera called the Kodak and the modern age of photography began. Between 1888 and 1950, highly flammable cellulose nitrate film was used. Today, safer, cellulose acetate film is used.
labourer
one who owns no real estate and works for wages.
Land claims
In 1973, the Canadian federal government recognized 2 broad classes of claims- comprehensive and specific. See Comprehensive land claims and Specific land claims
land marker
a stone, tree, stake etc. used to mark a spot from which land measurements were made.
land tenure
the ways in which land is or can be owned.
landau
a four-wheeled covered carriage with seats facing each other.
lazaretto
a hospital where lepers were treated.
legatee
a person who receives personal property as a result of a will or testament.
letters patent
title to crown land.
letters testamentary
a document from the probate court authorizing an executor named in a will to carry out his duties.
licence of occupation
a permit to use Crown land issued by the colonial government before Confederation.
lien
a claim upon another's property until a debt is paid.
life estates
an estate the duration of which is limited to the life of the person to whom it is transferred.
lineal
same blood lines descended vertically as in grandfather, father, son.
linguistics
the study of the different aspects of human languages.
link
a unit of land measurement equalling 1/100th of a chain or 7.92 inches.
literate
able to read, write and talk intelligently
litigant
a person involved in a lawsuit.
locality research calendar
A form where you can list records and resources abailable for a particular locality. Such a checklist helps make sure all valuable materials have been consulted..
Loyalist
one who actively supported the British during the American Revolution. In 1783 thousands moved north to the region that became New Brunswick in 1784.
lung fever
pneumonia.
lung sickness
tuberculosis or the old term, consumption.
mania
insanity.
master mariner
the captain or commander of a ship.
mensa et thoro
divorce from bed and board; a type of legal separation.
metes and bounds
a method of describing the physical dimensions of a land section by using compass point and distance references. A chain is a unit of measure used in land surveys where the metes and bounds of property are defined and documented as in a land grant or land deed.
Métis
People of mixed First Nation and European ancestry who identify themselves as Métis, distinct from First Nations, Inuit or non-aboriginal people. Their culture draws on their diverse ancestral origins, such as Scottish, French, Ojibwa and Cree. They do not have Indian status under the Indian Act.
Michaelmas
refers to the autumn term in court cases.
mistery
a trade or occupation. A master was required to teach an apprentice the "misteries" of their trade.
moiety
one half or equal share of anything.
mortification
infection.
motewolon
(Maliseet) a man or woman with extraordinary spiritual powers.
nation
a people who share common origins, history, customs, territory, language and government.
natural child
an illegitimate child.
NBGS
New Brunswick Genealogical Society http://www.nbgs.ca/
necrology
a listing of deaths or obituaries.
next friend
one who acts on behalf of someone who is unable to act for themselves.
non-status Indian
a person who does not have legal status under the Indian Act but who considers himself or herself to be Indian because of descent or way of life.
Nunavut
The territory created in the Canadian North on April 1, 1999 when the former Northwest Territories was divided in two. Nunavut means"our land" in Inuktitut. Inuit, whose ancestors inhabited these lands for thousands of years, make up 85 percent of the population of Nunavut. The territory has its own public government.
nuncupative will
an oral will given just before death in the presence of witnesses and written down afterwards.
obelisk
a tall slender four sided tombstone.
obiter dictum
an opinion expressed by a judge in a case about matters or circumstances which do not directly concern the case.
off-reserve
A term used to describe First Nation people, services or objects that are not part of a First Nation community with registered status.
official records
records that are kept by an institution like an Archives or a Provincial or Federal government. Examples: Census, birth, marriage and death records.
oral history
evidence taken from the spoken words of people who have knowledge of past events and traditions.
oral tradition
the passing along of knowledge, tradition, customs and skills by word of mouth from one generation to the next.
original records
see Primary sources
Oyer and Terminer
high courts of criminal jurisdiction.
PANB
Provincial Archives of New Brunswick collects, preserves, and makes available for research, documents and records bearing upon the history of New Brunswick. http://archives.gnb.ca/
parchment
writing material made from animal skins.
parish
can be a Church or Civil Parish. A Church Parish is a community served by a Church or Churches. A Civil Parish is a division of land within a County for the purpose of providing the area with municipal and provincial government services.
patent
a type of deed or conveyance of government land to an individual.
patronymic
a name formed by the addition of a prefix or suffix to indicate sonship, e.g. McDonald, Johnson.
pedigree chart
one of the basic forms used in recording genealogical data. It comes in various shapes and sizes and can be used to record names, dates, and places and provides an overview of a family line and clearly establishes kinship. Pedigree charts show the direct ancestors of a particular individual and serve as a road map or index that can help the genealogist determine what research must be done to fill in gaps. Pedigree charts contain a numbering system that allows lines to be carried back onto another chart. It should also be noted that it is a genealogical custom that male names are designated by an even number and female names by an odd number, with the exception of the first person recorded on the chart who can be either male or female. Although pedigree charts come in a variety of forms, most have the common features as indicated below.
people
a large group of humans sharing a common culture.
per stirpes
the right of heirs to inherit according to blood relationship or ascent or descent of pedigree.
periodic tenancy
e.g., a month to month tenancy.
pleadings
documents filed in court proceedings.
poll tax
a tax levied on each head or person.
pound
a British unit of money, twenty shillings. Today, worth about Cdn $1.80.
pretermit
to omit an heir from a will.
Primary sources
Records created and witnessed at the time an event took place by an official in the regular course of business. Primary sources might be records made by government offices when an individual was involved in a land transaction, acquired a license, went to court, filed a marriage bond, was enumerated in a census, had a will probated, served in the military and so on. Churches produced primary sources when an individual was baptized, married or buried. Schools, employers, law offices, businesses and so on can also produce primary records as they conduct their affairs. Primary sources are only as accurate as the data provided to the record keeper.
primogeniture
the right possessed by the eldest son to succeed to the estate of his ancestor, but now obsolete.
probate
An official copy of a will that is legally certified as genuine and given to the executors.
Probate Court
Deals with matters involving wills and estates of deceased persons. Judges from the Court of Queen's Bench preside over the Probate Court.
proclamation
a formal legal document issued by the Crown or its representative and having the same authority as legislation.
proved
legal process whereby the accuracy of wills, deeds, bills of sale etc. are established.
Provincial Court
Provincial Court of New Brunswick is the entry point for all persons charged with offences under the Criminal Code or other federal or provincial legislation. The Provincial Court has jurisdiction over almost all criminal matters involving both youth and adults. Even in cases where the accused chooses to be tried by the Court of Queen's Bench, the Provincial Court still may be required to hold a hearing to determine whether the accused is to be detained in custody, or to hold a Preliminary Inquiry to determine whether the accused is to stand trial.
puoin
(Micmac) a man or woman with extraordinary spiritual powers.
putrid fever
diphtheria.
quit rent
a fee paid annually to the crown on land grants.
receiver
a person who is appointed by court to hold property while the settlement of a suit is pending.
record type
meaning an original record or transcription thereof...also a primary or secondary record.
records search sheet
see research calendar
registrar
an official who records land transactions, probates, births, deaths etc.
relict
widow.
remitting fever
malaria.
replevin
a lawsuit to recover a stolen item.
research calendar
A form where you can record the type of document, location and page number where individual facts obtained on a particular family are located. You can explain why certain records were searched, and describe the discovered data.
reserve
Tract of land, the legal title to which is held by the Crown, set apart for the use and benefit of an 'Indian' band. The proper term is 'designated land parcel for aboriginal occupation'. Individual bands have exclusive right to use or occupy certain land 'reserved' for them.
ritual
an action or behaviour that follows a fixed pattern and is repeated at appropriate times to express religious beliefs.
saqamaw/sakom
chief (Micmac, Maliseet). Leaders who provided advice and wisdom of their experience. Decisions affecting the community were made by consensus. Chiefs did not control or exert power over others; nor did they have a higher rank than other leaders.
schooner
a fore and aft rigged ship with two or more masts, the foremast being smaller than the other masts.
screws
rheumatism.
Secondary evidence
is evidence that is not the result of personal observation at the time an event took place but comes from written or verbal testimony. Secondary evidence may contain helpful clues that can be useful in your research, but every fact derived from a secondary source should be verified in primary or official records if this is at all possible.
Secondary sources
are family or local histories, record transcriptions, indexes, guides, compilations, biographies and so on. These sources are considered less accurate because they were created after an event took place or they are compilations that may have errors in transcription, editing and spelling.
security
a person who would vouch for another.
shilling
an English coin equaling 12 pennies.
ship
a sailing vessel with a bowsprit and three, four, or five square rigged masts.
ships fever
typhus.
shipwright
a person who constructs or repairs ships.
shiretown
in New Brunswick it is the chief town in a county where land, probate and other records were once kept. All of these records are now at the Provincial Archives.
sic [sic]
so, thus to indicate an error appearing in a record or other source the author does not correct.
sloop
a small sailing vessel with one mast.
Small Claims Court
Small Claims Court was established in New Brunswick in January 1999. The monetary limit of its jurisdiction is $6,000. The Small Claims Court deals with civil matters such as debts, landlord and tenant disputes, and car accidents.Small claims cases are heard by adjudicators, who are senior lawyers appointed from the New Brunswick private bar for a set term. The Small Claims Act provides for a retrial in the Court of Queen's Bench.
specie
minted coins made of metal.
Specific land claims
Land claims that deal with specific grievances that First Nations may have regarding the fulfilment of treaties and includes grievances relating to First Nations' lands and assets administration under the Indian Act.
Status Indian
A person who is registered as an Indian under the Indian Act but not necessarily a descendant of a First Nation person. The act sets out the requirements for determining who is an Indian for the purposes of the Indian Act.
steerage
a section in a passenger ship for those paying the lowest fare.
Stereographs
Stereographs became popular after 1850 and remained so until well into the 1900's. By this photographic process two prints were placed side-by-side on a card which when looked at through a special viewer had a three-dimensional effect. Many homes had a viewer and an assortment of card stereographs.
suitor
a plaintiff in a law case.
surety
a person who assumes the responsibility for anothers debts.
Surrender
A formal agreement by which a band consents to give up part or all of its rights and interests in a land parcel designated for aboriginal occupation. Designated land parcels can be surrendered for sale or for lease, on certain conditions.
tenancy at will
the tenancy continues so long as the landlord or tenant wish it to continue.
tenure
the occupying or title to land and thus the right to rents and profits accruing from the land.
testate
one who has made a Will; one who dies leaving a Will. See intestate.
testator
a male who executed a will.
testatrix
a female who died leaving a will.
Tintypes, cartes-de-visite, cabinet prints
In the mid 1850's photographic images were reproduced on thin iron plates that were then coated with varnish. Durable and cheap tintypes were popular until the 1890's and nearly every photograph album has examples. In the 1860's the photographic image was placed on a 2"x3" piece of cardboard and these cartes-de-visite were sent to friends and relatives as souvenirs. Today, carte-de-visite are found in many old photograph albums. In the 1870's, larger 4"x6" cabinet prints with more elaborate backgrounds and with a more artistic appearance became popular. These photographic prints were made from "wet-plate" glass negatives but by the late 1870's factory produced "dry-plate" glass negatives became widely used.
tort
a civil wrong other than a wrong involving contracts.
Treaty Indian
A Status Indian who belongs to a First Nation that signed a treaty with the Crown.
tribal council
A regional group of First Nation members that delivers common services to a First Nation group.
Trinity
refers to a summer session of a court.
trundle bed
a low bed on casters that could be pushed under a higher bed when not in use.
trust
a equitable right or title to land or other property, held for the benefit of a person(s) known as the beneficiary.
trustee
one who holds legal title to land or other property for the benefit of a beneficiary.
ultimo
or ult., in the month immediately preceding.
vendor
a seller.
venue
a location involving the jurisdiction of a court over a neighbourhood or County or community in which an injury is declared to have happened.
warrant , warranty
a guarantee.
writ
a document delivered to a defendant notifying him to appear and defend a civil action or lawsuit commenced against him by a plaintiff.