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Education Records

During colonial times, school records were non-existent for First Nation children unless they left their communities to obtain an education.  First Nation women who married non- First Nation men may have had children educated in local schools sponsored by churches.

Following are time periods and associated First Nation communties extracted from the Federal Indian Day Schools of the Maritimes (Hamilton, W.D. 1986; The Federal Indian day schools of the Maritimes.  Fredericton, 151 pages; PANB; reference (MC80/1235)

Afton Mi'gmaq First Nation community 30 km. east Of Antigonish, NS
1952-late 1960's 

Bear River Mi'gmaq First Nation community 12 km. southeast of Digby, NS

Big Cove Mi'gmaq First Nation community 12 km. west of Rexton, NB
1896 - present
Community operated sine 1985 

Burnt Church Mi'gmaq First Nation community 50 km. east of Newcastle, NB
1880- present
Community operated sine 1982 

Chapel Island Mi'gmaq First Nation community 50 km. east of Port Hawkesbury, NS
also known as Salmon River Reserve
1886 - 1965
Community operated sine 1981 

Cole Harbour Mi'gmaq First Nation community east of Darmouth, NS
no longer inhabited
also known as Cow Bay Indian School

Edmundston Maliseet First Nation community in Edmundston, NB
also known as Little Falls and St. Basile
presenly known as Madawaska Maliseet

Eel Ground Mi'gmaq First Nation community 8 km. west of Newcastle, NB
1882 - present

Eel River Mi'gmaq First Nation community 8 km. south of Dalhousie, NB

Eskasoni Mi'gmaq First Nation community 45 km. southwest of Sydney, NS
1875 - present 
Community operated since 1980 

Indian Brook Mi'gmaq First Nation community 8 km. north of Shubenacadie, NS (also known as Shubenacadie and Micmac)
1943-late 1960's

Indian Island Mi'gmaq First Nation community 10 km. northeast of Rexton, NB
1930-1940;   school in rented quarters

Kingsclear Maliseet First Nation community 20 km. west of Fredericton, NB
1883 - present;  school now community operated

Lennox Island Mi'gmaq First Nation community 50 km. northwest of Summerside, PEI

Malagawatch Mi'gmaq First Nation community 35 km. northeast of Port Hawkesbury, NS
no longer inhabited

Millbrook Mi'gmaq First Nation community in Truro, NS

New Germany Mi'gmaq First Nation community 30 km. northeast of Bridgewater, NS
present-day Elmwood

Oromocto Maliseet First Nation community in Oromocto, NB
1909- late 1940's

Pictou Landing Mi'gmaq First Nation community 10 km. north of New Glasgow, NS
also known as Fishers Grant and as the Indian Cove school
1898-late 1950's

Red Bank Mi'gmaq First Nation community 20 km. west of Newcastle, NB
present-day Metepenagiag

Rocky Point Mi'gmaq First Nation community across the harbour from Charlottetown, PEI.
1914-1922;  school intermittently in rented quarters

St. Mary's Maliseet First Nation community, Fredericton, NB
1883-late 1960's

Sydney Mi'gmaq First Nation community, Sydney, NS
Until 1927 the community was known as King's Road then as Membertou located at a different part of Sydney

Tobique Maliseet First Nation community 5 km. north of Perth-Andover, NB
1881-present; school currently community operated

Tufts Cove School Mi'gmaq First Nation community formerly in Dartmouth, NS
1912-1917; school in rented quarters

Wagmatcook Mi'gmaq First Nation community 10 km. west of Baddeck, NS
1874- present

Whycocomagh Mi'gmaq First Nation community 50 km. northeast of Port Hawkesbury, NS
formerly known as Middle River and Nyanza
1874- present

Woodstock Maliseet First Nation community, Woodstock, NB

At public repositories, check their catalogues for the title Education, and under the name of the school, county and community.  Also, check photograph collections for photographs of student groups and individual schools.  School histories for many communities are listed in:

  • Taylor Hugh, New Brunswick History: A Checklist of Secondary Sourcesand in
  • the supplements by Eric Swanick. 

Some of the Private Sector Records that may contain information on First Nation education at the PANB follows. 

1816 to 1971 RS657 Grammar, Parish, and Private School Returns
Generated by teachers, school inspectors and school trustees.  The material in the collection is organized by county and consists chiefly of warrants, correspondence, certificates regarding school construction, appointment of teachers, financial data, teachers and trustees returns and inspectors reports.  School returns are incomplete for the years before 1877 and more complete after that date.  The documents supply the names of teachers, the names and ages of the students, and subjects taught.  Examination marks are not provided.

1812 to 1882  RS655  Teachers Petitions and Licenses
Provides the names of applicants, country of birth, education, teaching experience, church affiliation, samples of handwriting along with other data for the  period.  The records have been microfilmed. 

1816 to 1973  RS115 Teachers Licensing and Appointment Records

1837 to 1966  RS114 Teachers Payment and Pension Records
Records and schedules

1844 to 1958  RS113 Records of the Board of Education
Contains general board records, schedules of matters submitted to the board, diaries and registries of letters, inspectors' reports and departmental ledgers. 

1968-1970  RS207 School District 11, Richibucto (1967-1981) Records
file #24, Affaires Indiennes,.

1960-1965 RS279 Kent County School Records(Pre-1967)
file N., Indian Affairs,. 

1948-1959 RS281 Madawaska County School (Pre-1967) Records
file C.9, Indian students.

Other school records at the PANB may be found on microfilm under the title Education, the school name, county and community and in the Title Index to Private Sector Records.